英语被动语态主要知识归纳

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1. 被动语态的构成与用法

英语的语态有主动语态和被动语态两种。决定动词用主动语态还是被动语态主要看动词和主语的关系。如果主语是动作的执行者,也就是说它们是主动关系,此时动词用主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者,也就是说它们是被动关系,此时动词则用被动语态。英语的被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成,其中be有时态、人称和数的变化。如:

English is taught in most schools. 大多数学校都教英语。

The children are not allowed (permitted) to play on the grass. 孩子们不允许在草地上玩耍。

After the accident, the injured were taken to hospital. 事故发生之后受伤的人被送往医院急救。

2. 九种时态的被动语态

各种时态的被动语态

被动语态的构成

be

过去分词

1

一般现在时的被动语态

am / is / are

过去分词

2

一般过去时的被动语态

was / were

过去分词

3

现在进行时的被动语态

am / is / are +being

过去分词

4

过去进行时的被动语态

was / were +being

过去分词

5

现在完成时的被动语态

have / has been

过去分词

6

过去完成时的被动语态

had been

过去分词

7

将来完成时的被动语态

will / shall have been

过去分词

8

一般将来时的被动语态

will / shall be

过去分词

9

过去将来时的被动语态

would / should be

过去分词

请看以下用例:

We are given a lot of homework to do. 我们有很多作业要做。

They were given a warm send-off. 他们受到热烈的欢送。

I think we are being followed. 我想有人在跟踪我们。

They told me that the case was being investigated. 他们告诉我案子正在调查。

The documents for which they were searching have been recovered. 他们找寻的文件已找到了。

He asked if Mary had been sent to hospital. 他问玛丽是否已被送进医院。

Check carefully, so any mistakes will be caught. 仔细检查一遍,把所有错误都找出来。

He knew he would be punished for it. 他知道他会为此受到惩罚。

3. 含有情态动词的被动语态

含有情态动词的被动语态由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成。如:

You might be asked to speak at the meeting. 可能请你在会上发言。

Whenever (they are) known, such facts should be reported. 这类情况一旦发现就要报告。

All the above items can be obtained from our office. 所有上述资料可向我们办公室索取。

Something must be done to stop these accidents. 必须采取某种措施以防止这些事故。

These books may be appreciated better by older children. 年龄稍大的孩子可能更会欣赏这些书。

4. 短语动词的被动语态

“动词+介词或副词”构成的短语动词,以及“动词+名词+介词”构成的短语动词,在被动语态中不要漏掉后面的介词或副词。如:

Good use is made of the library. 这图书馆的利用率很高。

A man who is much talked about is always very attractive. 被人谈论多的人经常是很有吸引力的人。

Many interesting experiments are carried out in our laboratory. 我们实验室做了许多有趣的实验。

5. 关于“get+过去分词”

在英语口语中,有时可用“get+过去分词”构成被动语态。如:

I got dressed as quickly as l could. 我尽快穿上衣服。

I wasn’t surprised she get elected after all the efforts she made. 她尽了一切力量之后,当选了,这不使我感到奇怪。

We got delayed because of the holiday traffic. 因为节日交通阻塞,所以我们被耽误了。

I tried to find my way round London without a map and got lost. 我试图不带地图在伦敦寻路,结果迷路了。

注:这样结构比较常见的搭配有get arrested, get caught, get confused, get delayed, get divorced, get dressed, get drowned, get drunk, get elected, get engaged, get hit, get killed, get lost, get married, get stuck等。

 

【更多相关内容】

1、主动语态变为被动语态的方法

2、通常不用于被动语态的静态动词

3、名师详解:get+过去分词

4、也谈主动形式表被动含义

5、中学英语语法复习——被动语态

6、被动语态的主要用法

7、应对不同时态的被动语态只需两招

8、8种常用时态的被动语态

9、英语在什么情况下要用被动语态

10、主动语态变被动语态的方法及步骤

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