引导定语从句的关系代词用法综述

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一、关系代词的概念

简单地说,关系代词就是用于引志定语从句的代词。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。关系代词用于代表先行词,同时又在定语从句中作一定的句子成分(如作主语、宾语或定语等)。英语中的关系代词主要有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as等。如:

The boy who threw the stone is the one with curly hair. 扔石头的那个男孩子是鬈发的。

The road which joins the villages is very narrow. 连接两个村子的公路很窄狭。

The boys whose names were called stood up. 叫到名字的男孩们站了起来。

I had coffee after dinner, as is my usual practice. 我饭后喝咖啡,这是我的习惯。

二、关系代词that的用法

关系代词在句子中既可用于指人,也可用于指物;从所充当的句子成分来看,它既可用作主语,也用作宾语。如:

1. 用于指人的用法:

He is the person that heard you calling.他就是听到你叫的那个人。

He is the man who lives next door. 他就是住在隔壁的那个人。

2. 用于指事物的用法:

The office that deals with passports is upstairs. 办护照的办公室在楼上。

The missile that killed Goliath was a stone. 打死戈利亚斯的投掷物是块石头。

The bus that crashed was carrying 30 passengers. 撞毁的公交车上有30名乘客。

The bus that crashed was carrying 30 passengers. 撞毁的公交车上有30名乘客。

三、关系代词who的用法

关系代词who在定语从句中通常只用于指人,不用于指事物。它在句子中主要用作主语或宾语。如:

Nothing is difficult to the man who will try. 世上无难事,只要肯攀登。

The window was broken by the boy who lives opposite. 窗户被住在对面的那个男孩打破了。

四、关系代词whom的用法

关系代词who在定语从句中通常只用于指人,不用于指事物。它在句子中主要用作宾语。如:

She married the man to whom she was engaged. 她嫁给了与她订婚的那个男人。

The man with whom I traveled couldn’t speak English. 和我一道旅行的人不会说英语。

The bankrupt and the men to whom he owed money arranged an accommodation. 破产者和他的债权人协议调解。

The author whom you criticized in your view has written a letter in reply. 你在评论中批评的那个作者已写了一封回信。

若直接用于介词后作宾语,只能用whom;但是,若不是直接用于介词后,则也可用who代替whom。如:

Then I telephoned the doctor whom [who] Charles had recommended. 于是我给查尔斯推荐的医生了电话。

五、关系代词whose的用法

关系代词whose在定语从句中主要用作定语。如:

He is the man whose car was stolen. 他就是汽车被窃的人。

You are the only one whose advice he might listen to. 你是惟一可能使他听从劝告的人。

The woman whose umbrella you took is very angry about it. 那个雨伞被你拿走的女人对此很生气。

whose既可指人,也可指物。指物时,可用含有of which的结构(注意词序)或其他结构替换。如:

He’s written a book whose name I’ve forgotten.

=He’s written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten.

=He’s written a book of which I’ve forgotten the name.

=He’s written a book that I’ve forgotten the name of.

他写了一本书,书名我忘了。

但是,whose指人时,通常不能用含有of whom的结构来替换,如:

他就是汽车被窃的人。

误:He is the man the car of whom was stolen.

正:He is the man whose car was stolen.

 

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