第8章 分词

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第八章 分词

一.概念:

分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式

二.相关知识点精讲:

1.现在分词的用法:

1) 做表语:

he was very amusing.

that book was rather boring.

很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语:

exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.

2) 作定语:

上面所出现的现在分词都可以用作定语, 修饰一个名词:

that must have been a terrifying experience.

i found him a charming person.

现在分词短语还可以放在名词的后面修饰名词, 相当于一个定语从句:

there are a few boys swimming in the river.

there is a car waiting outside.

3) 作状语:

现在分词短语可以表示一个同时发生的次要的或伴随的动作:

following tom, we started to climb the mountain.

opening the drawer, he took out a box.

taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.

现在分词短语还可以表示原因, 相当于一个原因状语从句:

not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.

being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.

现在分词短语还可以表示时间, 相当于一个时间状语从句:

hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.

returning home, he began to do his homework.

jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.

be careful when crossing the road.

having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.

having finished her work, she went home.

4)作宾补:

现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语的补语:

例如, see, hear, catch, find,keep ,have 等.

i see him passing my house every day.

i caught him stealing things in that shop.

i smelt something burning.

she kept him working all day.

2.过去分词的用法:

1) 作表语:

we were so bored that we couldn’t help yawning.

she felt confused, and even frightened.

they were very pleased with the girl.

i’m satisfied with your answer.

he is not interested in research.

2) 作定语:

she has a pleased look on her face.

the teacher gave us a satisfied smile.

cooked fooda written report

fried eggsboiled water

frozen foodarmed forces

required coursesfallen leaves

finished productsa forced smile

the risen sunnew arrived visitors

what’s the language spoken in that country?

they’re problem left over by history.

the play put on by the teachers was a big success.

is there anybody injured?

do you know the number of books ordered?

3)作状语:

seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent.

given good health, i hope to finish the work this year.

they came in, followed by some children.

depressed, he went to see his elder sister.

when treated with kindness, he was very amiable.

4)作宾补:

过去分词也同样可以作宾语的补语, 接在某些动词后面

i will have the clothes washed tomorrow.

when they get back home, they found the room robbed.

 

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