常用词few用法说明

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1. 比较 few 和 a few:两者均表示复数意义,few 表示数量很少或几乎没有,强调“少”,含有否定意义:a few 表示数量虽然少但毕竟还有,强调“有”,含有肯定意义。比较:

His ideas are difficult, and few people understand them. 他的想法很难懂,很少有人理解。

His ideas are difficult, but a few people understand them. 他的想法很难懂,但有些人能理解。

由于few本身具有否定意味,所以后接反意疑问句时要用肯定式。如:

He has few reasons for staying, has he? 他留下来理由不充分,对吧?

2. 有时为了强调few的意义,表示数量很少,可在其前使用too, so, very,, rather等修饰语。如:

There were too few people at the meeting. 参加会议的人寥寥无几。

There are so few that I can’t give you one. 太少了,我不能给你一个。

We met rather few people who spoke English. 我们没遇到几个会讲英语的人。

Very few people are really happy with their body shape. 真正对自己体形感到满意的人很少。

3. 其比较级和最高级分别为 fewer, fewest。如;

I’ll try to make fewer mistakes next time. 我下次要少犯一些错误。

I’ve got fewer problems than I used to have. 我现在的问题比过去少了。

The translation with the fewest mistakes isn’t always the best. 错误最少的译文并非总是最好的。

4. 用作形容词,其后可直接跟名词,无需用 of;但是,若其后名词之前有限定词修饰或者是代词或从句等,则必须要用介词 of。如:

Few of them know this. 他们当中没几个人知道这一点。

A few of these books are mine. 这些书当中有几本是我的。

5. 单独使用的few是泛指的,但是当它受定冠词修饰时,它表示特指意义,即用来指指已经确定或熟悉的某个小群体,其意为“为数不多的”“少数的”。如:

Guests were crowded into the few remaining rooms. 把客人都挤在剩余的几个房间里了。

若the few单独使用(即其后不接名词),它与the many相对,意思是“少数人”,这是一种非常正式的用法。如:

Real power belongs to the few. 真正的权力掌握在少数人手里。

6. 用于what few,其意为“极少的(几个)”“仅有的(几个)”,虽然强调数量很少,但仍有一定的肯定意味;这样用的what与定冠词的用法相似,用于说明特指的可数名词,有时可以与定冠词换用,意思不变。如:

What few friends she has are out of the country. 她仅有的几个朋友都在国外。

The ten men have packed what few belongings they have. 这10个人已将他们仅有的一点行装打点好了。

7. 几个词序问题:

(1) 与another搭配时,置于another之后。如:

I’m staying for another few weeks. 我还要再呆几个星期。

The road runs northeast for another few miles. 这条路向东北方又延伸了几英里。

(2) 与every搭配时,置于every之后。如:

We meet every few days. 我们每隔几天就会一次面。

Every few days there seemed to be another setback. 每隔几日似乎就有一次挫折。

(3) 与first, last, past, next搭配时,置于其后。如:

He has lived here for the last few years. 最近几年他住在这里。

The next few days are going to be wet. 往后几天都要下雨。

I’ve seen little of her in the past few weeks. 近几周我很少见到她。

The first few chapters are about his early days. 前几章谈他的少年时期。

(4) 与more搭配时,置于其前。如:

I advise waiting a few more days. 我建议再等几天。

I have a few more pages to read yet. 我还有几页要看。

(5) 与such搭配使用时,置于such之前。如:

I’ve met few such people. 那样的人我见得很少。

8. 几个易误解的短语:

(1) a good few:其意思不是“很少”“相当少”,而是“不少”“相当多”,强调数量多。如:

You will have to wait a good few weeks. 你得等上好几个星期。

We had a good few letters this morning. 我们今天早上收到好多信。

(2) not a few:其意思不是“很少”“相当少”,而是“不少”“相当多”,强调数量多。如:

Not a few of my friends are vegetarian. 我朋友中不少人吃素。

There were hundreds of protestors, not a few of whom were women. 有数百名抗议者,其中相当一部分为妇女。

(3) quite a few:其意思不是“很少”“相当少”,而是“不少”“相当多”,强调数量多。如:

Quite a few people went to the game. 相当多人去观看了球赛。

We’ve got quite a few friends in the village. 我们在村子里有相当多的朋友。

(4) no fewer than:其意为“多达”“至少”“不少于”,主要用于强调数目之多或为了给人以深刻的印象,与as many as的意思相似。如:

There were no fewer than a hundred cars there. 那里的汽车不少于100辆。

There are no fewer than 100 different species in the area. 这个地区的物不会少于100种。

 

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